The AIM/Enduse India 3.3 model
The AIM/Enduse Indian model integrates the water module at the resource and technological level into the existing energy and environment systems (Vishwanathan et al 2017, 2018a, Vishwanathan and Garg 2020) to capture the impacts of existing and future policies for water, energy, and land systems on the major water- and energy-intensive sectors. The model uses recursive dynamics and runs in annual time steps. It optimizes costs (technology, energy, and water) and resources (water, energy) by selecting a set of best available technologies based on given physical resources and technological and environmental parameters. A detailed characterization of the inputs reflects an optimistic engineering view of technological progress. Economic parameters, such as taxes, subsidies, resource (energy, water, and land) technologies, policies, and social costs are also classified. The final service demand is exogenous, and is driven not only by the gross domestic product (GDP) but also by end-use consumption and policies across various sub-sectors. The model is also being soft-linked to climatic–hydrological models (Vishwanathan et al 2018b).